The abusive partner, typically referred to as a batterer, may be a current spouse, live-in partner, significant other, boyfriend/girlfriend or an ex-spouse, past partner or ex-boyfriend/girlfriend, including someone with whom the victim has a child.The term “intimate partner violence” can also be used to describe domestic violence or dating violence.

These children may also be called “children who have been exposed to a batterer or battering behavior”.

These children may see or hear the physical and/or psychological violence, see the aftermath, be used as pawns or weapons against the adult victim, or become intentional or unintentional targets of an abuser.

They live in an environment of fear, unpredictability, and confusion.

Dating violence involves the intentional use of tactics by one partner to gain, maintain, or regain power and control over the other while in a dating or intimate relationship, including physical violence or threats, verbal abuse, emotional/psychological coercion, sexual abuse, stalking, isolation or a combination of these strategies.

Behavior in a relationship in which dating violence exists is controlling, abusive, threatening, and aggressive, resulting in fear, confusion and feelings of helplessness or hopelessness for the victim.

Dating violence can occur in homosexual and heterosexual relationships.A pattern of coercive control that includes the use of physical, sexual, emotional/psychological, verbal and economic abuse, including manipulation and maltreatment of children by one partner to gain, regain, and maintain power and control over an intimate partner.Note: Many professionals, including some RHY providers, may use the term “domestic violence victims” to include the children and young people who have lived in a home where one adult is using power and control tactics to abuse the other adult.Generally in the domestic violence field, domestic violence is understood to occur between adults in intimate, familial, or spousal relationships (see definition below), and domestic violence in and of itself is not child abuse.If the child him/herself were being physically, emotionally, sexually abused or neglected by a parent, relative, or other primary caregiver, it is more accurate and appropriate to distinguish this as .Describes situations where RHY are living in unstable and/or temporary living arrangements such as the couches or spare bedrooms of friends, lovers or other family members.