Rural libraries were established, and the goal became to have a library in every village.The reading of rural newspapers was encouraged to reinforce good reading habits and lifelong learning. Clientele included school dropouts and rural migrants who were never exposed to school before.Backyard garages were worked into lessons, as were tinsmithing, watch repair work, and many others. Voluntary contributions and government aid financed these schools. By 1973 almost 3 million people had benefited from literacy campaigns.

At independence, over 70 percent of adult Tanzanians were illiterate.

The object of adult education in Tanzania was not merely to teach literacy, but to help adults find solutions to other problems such as hunger, ignorance, disease, and soil erosion. Our children will not have an impact on our development for 5, 10, or even 20 years.

The attitudes of adults, on the other hand, have an impact now" (1967).

In 1970 a nationwide campaign was launched to impart functional literacy called "The Choice Is Yours." Learners participated in decision-making and development.

In 1973 another campaign was launched known as "Man Is Health." This emphasized good health habits and hygiene, while 1974 witnessed the emergence of the "Agriculture for Life" campaign.

In all of these campaigns reading, writing, and counting were taught, as well as knowledge that could immediately improve lives.

Students progressed through eight graded stages of increasing difficulty. Radio education programs kept in touch with students weekly, as did folk development colleges that offered one to three weekly classes in folk handicrafts, home economics, and mechanics.

The Tanzanian government achieved great success in expanding education among adults.

Adult education was seen as vital to the spread and implementation of ujamaa or African Socialism in the countryside.

Approximately 10 percent of the total education budget was set aside for adult education.

Students were told repeatedly to fight fatalism and that they could change their own fate or destiny.